• In fact, between 900 and 1200 m there is a reduction in the number of species from basal lineages of non-Passeriformes (notably of tinamous, parrots, and toucans; Supplementary material Appendix 2, Fig. A1) that lie close to the periphery in the functional trait space (Supplementary material Appendix 2, Fig. A2).The patterns in beta diversity further confirmed these abrupt changes.