• Stage 1 includes culturing pluripotent stem cells, such as hESCs and/or iPS cells, in a serum-free chemically defined medium (CDM: DMEM/F12 supplemented with 2% bovine serum albumin, 1 mM L-glutamine, 1% nonessential amino acids and 0.1 mM 2-mercaptoethanol) that includes fibroblast growth factor, Activin A, and bone morphogenetic protein (FAB medium).